LF/VLF Bibliography

"A Very high power long-wave broadcasting station", C. E. Smith, J. R. Hall, J. O Weldon
PROC IRE AUG 1954, 54#8, pages 1222-1235
Describes a 1 megawatt VOA McCarthy era LF transmitter.

"High-speed FSK of LF and VLF radio circuits", H. G. Wolff
IRE Transactions on Communication Systems DEC 1957, CS-5, pages 29-42
How to vary the antenna coupling to change the Q and correspondingly change the transmission rate. Includes circuits and photographs of the antenna and loading coil.

"Modem performance in VLF atmospheric noise", J. K. Omura, P. D. Shaft
IEEE Transactions on Communication Technology OCT 1971, COM-19#5, pages 659-668
Use of an atmospheric noise model to analyze various coding techniques.

"Error correction code performance on HF, Troposcatter and Satellite channels", K. Brayer
IEEE Transactions on Communications Technology OCT 1971, COM-19#5, pages 781-
Examines Golay, Gallager, Massey codes over 3 types of channels. Convolutional codes do better.

"The effect of varying data rates and coding on groundwave communication rates", P. C. Crane
MILCOM-86 , pages 14.2.1-14.2.3
Analyzes the effect of various coding methods on BER.

"A CPFSK for 5Khz FLTSAT Channels", D. B. Coomber, J. W. Marshall
MILCOM-87 , pages 3.3.1-3.3.5

"Computer simulation and receiver study at VLF", C. W. Wightman, D. R. Uci
MILCOM-87 , pages 43.1.1-43.1.5
Simulation of a receiver with a lightning impulse model.

"The engineering of communication systems for low radio frequencies", J. S. Belrose, W. L. Hatton, C. A. McKerrow, R. S. Thain
PROC IRE 1959, pages 661-680
A classic. Describes propagation of LF waves as well as system design.

"VLF, LF and MF Communication Systems", Naval Electronic Systems Command
Navelex 0101,113 AUG 1972
A good introduction to VLF and LF transmission.

"La nouvelle famille de re\'cepteurs VLF/LF/HF de Thomson-CSF/DTC", G. Haom, G. Goudezeune, J.-M. Baer
Mars 1986, 18#1, pages 121-169
Describes an upconverting multiband receiver with fully digital demodulation. Includes a special VLF front end.

"Low and Very Low Frequency radio wave propagation", John S. Belrose
JUL 1968, 29, pages IV-1-IV-115

"Designing a Moderately Spread Mode for VLF Communications", S. M. Little, R. L. Williams
MILCOM 1990 , pages 56.1.1-56.1.5
State of the art paper on communication system design for VLF: considerations include convolutional encoding, ML decoding and spread spectrum transmission.