"Fundamental limitations of small antennas", H. A. Wheeler
Proc. IEE , Dec. 1947, 35#12, pages 1479-1484
Presents basic formulae for computing capacitance, inductance, susceptance and reactance as well as efficiency for small antennas Establishes basic limitations for small antennas.

"Ground systems as a factor in antenna efficiency", G. H. Brown, R. F. Lewis, J. Epstein
Jun. 1937, 25#6, pages 753-787
An early paper describing the effect of a good ground system. Includes an interesting picture of a wire plow.

"LF antennas", unknown
Jasik , ed. , pages 1-4 to 1-34
Basic introduction to LF and VLF antenna design.

"Design of optimum buried-conductor RF ground system", F. R. Abbot
Proc. IRE , Jul. 1952, pages 846-852
An economic analysis of ground radial implementation. For the commercially minded.

"Monopole with inductive loading", C. W. Harrison
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation , Jul. 1963, pages 394-400
How to design loading coils with examples.

"Short ground-radial systems for short verticals", J. Sevick
QST , Apr. 1978, pages 30-33
An introduction to ground radial design for the radio amateur; includes a section on how to measure ground conductivity.

"On the use of active coupling networks with electrically small receiving antennas", A. J. Bahr
Nov. 1973, AP-25#6, pages 841-845
Active antenna design using a negative impedance converter.

"Short whip antennas", R. C. Hansen
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology , May. 1975, VT-, pages 21-29

"Design of High-Performance Negative-Feedback Amplifiers", E. H. Nordholt
Elsevier , 1983
Negative feedback amplifiers can be used in the construction of active amplifiers. Published PhD. thesis.

"An effective ground conductivity map for the continental U.S.", H. Fine
Sep. 1954, 42#9, pages 1405-1408

"Recieving antenna design for minature receivers", R. C. Pettengill, H. T. Garland, J. D. Meindl
IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation , Jul. 1972, pages 528-530
Presents a design procedure for ferrite rod receiving antennas.

"Active antenna performance limitation", R. A. Sainati
IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation , Nov. 1982, pages 1265-1267
Claims that antenna resistance is the limiting factor in active antenna performance.

"Aktive Antennen", H. Meinke
Nachrichtentechnische Zeitschrift , Dec. 1966, 19#12, pages 697-705
The most often cited paper on active antennas. In german, alas.

"Small Antennas", H. A. Wheeler
IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation , Jul. 1975, AP-23#4, pages 462-469
An overview of small antenna design. Describes briefly VLF transmission and reception.

"Short range active transmitting antenna with very large height reduction", T. S. M. Maclean, G. Morris
IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation , Mar. 1975, AP-23#2, pages 286-287
Use of an active antenna for transmitting.

"Increased capacitance for VLF umbrella antennas using multiple-wire rib construction", C. E. Smith, E. R. Graf
IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation , Nov. 1968, pages 766-767
Describes how to get more capacitance from the top loading umbrella style wires is proposed.

"Short antenna characteristics - Theoretical", L. C. Smeby
Proc. IRE , Oct 1949, pages 1185-1194
A brief treatment of top-loaded antennas (umbrellas)

"Performance of short antennas", C. E. Smith, E. M. Johnson
Proc. IRE , Oct 1947, pages 1026-1038
Extols the virtues of a good ground system, A high Q loading coil and top loading.

"VLF, LF and MF antennas", J. S. Belrose
A. W. Rudge, K. Milne, A. D. Oliver, P. Knight , ed. The handbook of antenna design , pages 553-662
Good introduction to LF antenna design. Extensive references.

"The characteristics of electrically short, umbrella top-loaded antennas", A. F. Gangi, S. Sensiper, G. R. Dunn
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation , Nov. 1965, AP-13#6, pages 864-871
Experimental confirmation of formulae for LF umbrella style antennas. Includes nomograms for capacitance, Q and effective height.

"Radio Antenna Engineering", E. A. Laport
McGrawHill 1952
Out of print. Contains considerable practical information including the use of a horse drawn wire plow. Also features a fascinating chapter on transmission lines.

"Input resistance of L.F. unipole aerials", J. R. Wait
Wireless Engineer , May. 1955, pages 131-138
Formulae are given for calculating input resistance for a given number of radials. It is shown that radials over a certain length given little benefit.

"A method for accurately measuring the vertical electric field strength of a propagating VLF wave", R. P. Harrison, E. A. Lewis
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement , March/June 1965, IM-14#2, pages 89-97
A complete description of how to measure field strength of ground waves. Includes schematics and calibration techniques.

"Efficiency of electrically small antennas combined with matching networks", Glenn S. Smith
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation , May. 1977, AP-25#3, pages 369-373
Design of L sections as finite Q matching networks for small antennas. Specifically uses ferrite rods.

"A new approach to active antenna design", Ernst H. Nordholt, Durk Van Willigen
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation , Nov. 1980, AP-28#6, pages 904-910
Design of active antennas for LF & HF range. Includes a schematic of such an antenna.

"Active loop-dipole aerials", P. A. Ramsdale, T. S. M. MacLean
Proc. IEE , Dec. 1971, 118#12, pages 1698-1710
More detail on active antennas. Follow on to Meinke but in english.

"Spiral top-loaded antenna: Characteristics and design", H. B. Bhojwani, Leon W. Zelby
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation , May. 1973, AP-21#3
Claims that the addition of a spiral conductor on the top of a monopole not only increases effective length but also eliminates the need for a tuning coil (goniometer).

"Low-Frequency Top-loaded Antennas", T. E. Devaney, R. F. Hall, W. E. Gustafson
U.S. Navel Electronics Laboratory 22 June 1966
A set of graphs are given for the design of top loaded monopoles. Although written for the high power, large acreage type, it offers some insight into design tradeoffs.

"AM Broadcast Antennas with Elevated Radial Ground Systems", A. Christman, R. Radcliff, D. Adler, J. Breakall, A. Resnick
IEEE Trans. Broadcasting , 1988, 34
An NEC simulation claims that 4 above ground radials will outperform 120 buried radials.

"Signal/noise ratio performance of loaded wire antennas", P. A. Ramsdale
Proc. IEE , Oct 1977, 10 , pages 840-843
An interesting discussion of the effect of loading coils on the SNR of wire antennas. Different loads are investigated and evaluated.

"Using Elevated Radials in Conjunction with Deteriorated Buried Radial Ground Systems", A. Christman, R. Paul Zeineddin, R. Radcliff, J. Breakall
IEEE Trans. Broadcasting , 1993, 39#2, pages 249-254
Different above ground radial placements are proposed for replacing bad buried radials.

"Home-Brewing Large Antenna Coils", R. H. Johns
QST , Oct 1992, pages 45-49
Describes a construction method for building loading coils.

"The Theory of Top-Loaded Antennas: Integral Equations for the Currents", T. L. Simpson
IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation , Mar. 1971, AP-19#2, pages 188-190
A mathematical analysis of top-loaded antennas.

"The Engineering of Communication Systems for Low Radio Frequencies", J. S. Belrose, W. L. Hatton, C. A. McKerrow, R. S. Thain
Proc. IRE , May 1959, pages 661-680
A very nice overview of the difficulties of LF and VLF communication. Discusses propagation, noise and antenna problems.

"The Helical Loaded Monopole Antenna", K. Nakamura, T. Nakamura
Electronics and Communications in Japan, Part 1 , 1991, 74#6, pages 37-41
Discusses the simulation of a MF antenna using a helical loading coil at the top of the antenna. It assumes a ground plane and is 0.1% wavelength tall (about 10 feet)

"High Power VLF/LF Transmissiting Antennas", P. Hansen
A discussion of recent antenna design by the Navy with particular attention paid to radiated power and bandwidth.

"The Active Receiving Antenna as Appropriate Element for HF-Radio Reception", H. F. Lindenmeier
IEE Conference on HF ,
How to combine ferrite rod antennas with an active element to create antenna arrays.

"Impedance Stability and Bandwidth Considerations for Elevated-Radial Antenna Systems", A. Christman, R. Radcliff
IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting , Jun. 1989, 35, pages 167-170
A comparison of NEC simulations of elevated radials with reality.

"Impedance of a Top-Loaded Antenna of Arbitrary Length over a Circular Grounded Screen", T. Stephenson, P. E. Mays, J. R. Wait, W. J. Surtees
J. of Applied Physics , May. 1954, 25#6, pages 553-555
An closed form solution is derived for a top loaded vertical monopole.

"The Electrically Small Magnetically Loaded Multiturn Loop Antenna", R. DeVore, P. Bohley
IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation , Jul.Y 1977, AP-25#4, pages 496-505
Analysis of a core enhanced antenna from 3-86 MHz.

"High power VLF Transmitting antennas using fast wave horizontal dipole arrays", E. W. Seeley
Radio Sci. , May. 1970, 5#5, pages 841-852
Rather than using a vertical dipole, how about using a horizontal array of dipoles? Better yet, put them over low conductive lava beds.

"NEC, NECGS and MININEC Numerical Models of LF Top-hat Monopole Antennas", S. S. Padmosutoyo
Mar. 1979
Naval Postgraduate School M.S. thesis; experience modelling LF antennas using NEC and derivatives.

"Design and Measurement of Small AM Broadcasting Antennas", H. Okamura
K. Hirasawa, M. Haneishi , ed. Analysis, design and measurement of small and low profile antennas , Artech House 1992
A very nice introduction to antenna measurement of short antennas.

"Low-Frequency Antennas", B. G. Hagaman
Y.T. Lo, S.W. Lee. , ed. Antenna Handbook , Van Nostrand Reinhold 1988
A good overview of military style high power, large area antennas.

"Multiple tuned VLF Antennas", M. Schopp
IEEE Trans. Broadcasting , Dec. 1993, 39#4, pages 402-407
Consider using multiple inverted L antennas connected together (or separated) to achieve different bandwidths.

"A Re-examination of the Fundamental Limits on the Radiation Q of Electrically Small Antennas", J. S. McLean
IEEE Trans. Antennas and Prop. , May. 1996, 44#5, pages 672-675
A detailed, mathematical analysis of small antenna Q.

"A Closed-Form Expression for the Driving-Point Impedance of the Small Inverted L Antenna", A. D. Wunsch, S-P. Hu
IEEE Trans. Antennas and Prop. , Feb. 1996, 44#2, pages 236-242
Derives the input impedance for a folded L Antenna

" Measurement of Transmit System Bandwidths on Very High Power LF Transmit Antenna Systems", S. C. Tietsworth
Proc. IMTC-94 , May. 1996, pages 48-51
Nice linear system approach to measuring bandwidth using power spectrum.

"A Wide-band FET Antenna and its Calibration", T. Matsui
IEEE Trans. Inst. and Meas. , Feb. 1991, 40#1, pages 47-49
Describes design principles behind a FET dipole antenna (wideband)

"Electrically small antennas", H. R. Virani
J. IERE , Sep.-Dec. 1988, 58#6, pages 266-274
Adding extra wires to an inverted L will increase the impedance and the bandwidth.

"VLF/LF coupler and antenna modelling", L. C. C. Li, L. E. Stein
Proc. MILCOM , 1989, pages 30.5.1-30.5.8
Describes an internal software system used by Westinghouse to model both the antenna and the transmission line.

"Noise considerations in active monopoles", Tang, M. W. Gunn
IEE Proc. , Feb. 1987, 134, Part H#1
Discussion of the fundamental limits (w.r.t. noise) in active untuned monopoles. Includes a comparison with experimental results and a schematic of a tuned active monopole using an LH0033.

"Analysis and Optimization of an Electrically Small Receiving Antenna", J. P. Casey, R. Bansal
IEEE Trans. Elect. Compat. , Aug. 1991, 33#3, pages 197-204
Design of a LORAN-C antenna to fit in a given volume. Both theoretically and experimental results.

Last updated Sat Dec 7 17:16:22 EST 1996